Carbohydrate Molecules Explained

Carbohydrate Molecules Explained

Carbohydrates are the most plentiful organic compounds on Earth, amd CP Lab Chemicals collects and provides them all for research, the food and flavor industry, and for commercial uses.  

Carbohydrates as molecules range from the simplest possessing the formula C-HOHx, (notice its a hydrated carbon) and medically important glucose C6H12O6,  to more the more common and complex disaccharides we are all familiar with, such as sucrose (table sugar) and lactose, which is difficult for some to metabolize, causing lactose intolerance.  We are also quite familiar with large polysaccharides such as cellulose, the structural support for plants, trees and the wood products we use daily.  Additionally, hyaluronic acids are now found in cosmetics, skin rejuvenating agents and cosmeceutical products where their use in beauty and dermatological applications is expanding.  Chitin, the complex carbohydrates found in insect exoskeletons and the shells of crustaceans, also has uses in commerce as filtering agents and in medicine and therapeutic applications.   

Monosaccharides, are those compounds possessing one sugar unit, based on a furanose ring system, shown in the structure of fructose, while the pyranose form of monosaccharides are shown in the structure of glucose, forming 6-membered ring system.  Glucose, fructose and galactose, are found in our everyday diets, and are metabolised in the Krebs-cycle and tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) to produce ATP for cellular metabolism and survival.  

Disaccharides such as sucrose, known as table sugar, is a dimer of glucose and fructose, and possesses an ether-C-O-C linkage that is readily broken down by stomach acids and enzymes in our digestive systems, producing glucose and fructose that can be readily metabolised to generate ATP.  Lactose, is found in mammalian milk, and is processed in cheese and those products that contain dairy products, is usually broken down in the intestines by the enzyme lactase to produce glucose and galactose.  Those that lack this enzyme are lactose intolerant, and severe bloating and digestive tract disturbances can occur.   

Our carbohydrates are of the highest quality and are in Technical, ACS Reagent, USP, NF, FCC and Food Grades. 

Carbohydrate compounds can be found by clicking the links below, searching for their common or scientific product names, by Chemical Abstracts Service number (Cas#) , or through Ask A Chemist - we can help you find what you need and supply the carbohydrates you need.   

Monosaccharides                                                                                                  Disaccharides             
Galactose Glucose Fructose  Sucrose Lactose
Xanthan gum Alginic acid  Hydroxyethyl Cellulose
Food grade   Formulation reagent 
Carbohydrate Derivatives Used in Research and Commerce                                                   
6-chloro-3-indolyl-beta-D-galacto Hygromycin B  Sucralose  Undecyl-beta-D-glucoyranoside
Biochemical indicator Natural antibiotic  Artificial Sweetener Biochemical indicator
26th Aug 2022 Mark L. Nelson, Ph.D

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